The famous puzzle, which consists of several colored sectors combined into one cube, appeared in 1974. The Hungarian sculptor and teacher decided to create a study guide to explain group theory to students. To date, this toy is considered the best-selling in the world.
But, success to this puzzle came only when German entrepreneur Tibor Lakzy drew attention to it. He, together with the game inventor Tom Kremer, arranged not only the release of the dice, but also organized the promotion of this puzzle to the masses. It was thanks to them that competitions on the high-speed assembly of Rubik's cubes appeared.
By the way, people who are engaged in this assembly of this puzzle are called speedcubers ("speed" - speed). It’s easy to guess that the speedy assembly of the “magic” cube is called speedcubing.
The structure of the Rubik's Cube and the names of the rotations
In order to learn how to assemble this puzzle, you need to understand its structure and find out the correct name of certain actions with it. The latter is important if you are going to find instructions for assembling the cube on the Internet. Yes, and in our article we will call the whole action with this puzzle, according to well-established expressions.
The standard Rubik's Cube has three sides. Each of which consists of three parts. Today, there are also 5x5x5 cubes. The classic cube has 12 edges and 8 corners. It is painted in 6 colors. Inside this puzzle is a cross around which the sides move.Crosspiece with centers
At the end of the cross is a square with one of six colors. Around him, you need to collect the remaining squares of the same color. Moreover, the puzzle is considered assembled if on all six sides of the cube its color is assembled.
IMPORTANT: In the original puzzle, yellow is always opposite to white, orange is red and green is blue. And if you disassemble the puzzle, and then fold it incorrectly, then this can lead to the fact that it can never be assembled.
In addition to the centers of the cube, the corners are the constant components of this puzzle. Each of the eight corners consists of three colors. And no matter how you change the position of the colors in this puzzle, the composition of the colors of the corners in it will not change.
IMPORTANT: The Rubik's Cube is assembled by placing the corner and middle sectors in accordance with the colors of the central sectors.
Now that we understand, the construction of this puzzle is time to move on to the names of the sides and rotations and their designation in the specialized literature.
In the process of assembling the Rubik's Cube, it may be necessary not only to move the sides, but also to change the position of this object in space. Specialists call these movements interceptions. Schematically, it is displayed like this:
IMPORTANT: If only the letter is indicated in the cube assembly algorithm you found, then we change the position of the side clockwise. If after the letter the apostrophe sign "'" is indicated, then we rotate the side counterclockwise. If after the letter the number "2" is indicated, then this means that the side must be rotated twice. For example, D2 '- rotate the lower side counterclockwise twice.
A simple and easy way to build: Instructions for children and beginners
The most detailed assembly instruction for beginners is as follows:
- At the first stage of assembling this popular puzzle, we start with the right cross. That is, from the fact that on each side of the cube the color of the edges and centers will be the same.
- To do this, find the white center and white edges and collect the crosses according to the diagram below:
- After the above steps, we should get a cross. Of course, the cross will not be right the first time and you need to slightly transform the resulting option. With proper execution, it will be quite simple to swap the ribs between each other.
- This algorithm is called "bang-bang" and is shown in the diagram below:
- We proceed to the next step in assembling the puzzle. Find the white corner on the bottom layer and set a red corner over it. This can be done in different ways, depending on the position of the red and white corners. We use the bang-bang method described above.
- As a result, we should get the following:
- We begin to collect the second layer. To do this, find four edges without yellow color and place them between the centers of the second layer. Then twist the cube until the color of the center matches the color of the face element.
- As with the previous layer, to achieve this you may need one of several options:
- After we have successfully completed the previous step, we proceed to the assembly of the yellow cross. Sometimes, he "gathers" himself. But, this happens very rarely. Most often, the cube at this stage has three options for arranging colors:
So the yellow cross is assembled. Further action in solving this puzzle comes down to seven options. Each of them is shown below:Yellow side assembly
In the next step, we need to collect the corners of the top layer. Take one of the corners and put it into place using the movements U, U 'and U2. This should be considered. So that the colors of the corner are identical to the colors on the lower layers. When using this step, hold the cube in white towards you.Next build step
- The final stage of cube assembly is the assembly of the ribs of the upper layer. If you did all of the above correctly, then four situations can arise. They are solved very simply:
The fastest way. Jessica Friedrich Method
This puzzle assembly method was developed by Jessica Friedrich in 1981. It is conceptually no different from most known methods. But, it focuses on build speed. Due to this, the number of assembly steps was reduced from seven to four. To master this method, you need to master “only” 119 algorithms.
IMPORTANT: This technique is not suitable for beginners. You need to study it when your cube assembly speed is less than 2 minutes.
1. At the first stage, you need to collect a cross with side faces. In specialized literature, this stage is called "Cross" (from the English. Cross - cross).
2. In the second stage, you need to collect two layers of the puzzle at once. They call him "F2L" (from the English. First 2 Layers - the first two layers). To achieve the result, the following algorithms may be required:Stage F2L
3. Now you need to collect the top layer completely. Paying attention to the sides is not worth it. The name of the stage is OLL (from the English Orientation of the Last Layer - orientation of the last layer). To build, you need to learn 57 algorithms:OLL Stage
4. The final stage of cube assembly. PLL (from the English Permutation of the Last Layer - arranging the elements of the last layer in places). Its assembly can be carried out using the following algorithms:PLL Stage
3x3 rubik's cube assembly diagram in 15 moves
Since 1982, when the competition for high-speed assembly of the Rubik's Cube appeared, many fans of this puzzle began to develop algorithms that will help to correctly arrange the sectors of the cube with a minimum of moves. Today, the minimum number of moves in this puzzle is called "Algorithm of God" and is 20 moves.
Therefore, in 15 moves you cannot collect a Rubik's cube. Moreover, a few years ago, an 18-way algorithm for assembling this puzzle was developed. But, it can not be used from all the positions of the cube, and therefore it was rejected as the fastest.
In 2010, scientists from Google created a program with which they calculated the fastest Rubik's cube assembly algorithm. He confirmed that the minimum number of steps is 20. Later, the Lego Mindstorm EV3 robot was created from the details of the popular designer, which is able to assemble the Rubik's cube from any position in 3.253 seconds. He uses 20 steps in his "work" "Algorithm of God". And if someone tells you that there is a 15-step cube assembly scheme, do not believe it. Even Google’s capacities are “not enough” to find it.Another assembly scheme